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SQL Server: 04 – T-SQL Statemetns Categories


 

The four main categories of SQL statements are as follows:

  1. DML (Data Manipulation Language)
    2. DDL (Data Definition Language)
    3. DCL (Data Control Language)
    4. TCL (Transaction Control Language)

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DML (Data Manipulation Language)

DML statements affect records in a table. These are basic operations we perform on data such as selecting a few records from a table, inserting new records, deleting unnecessary records, and updating/modifying existing records.

DML statements include the following:

SELECT – select records from a table
INSERT – insert new records
UPDATE – update/Modify existing records
DELETE – delete existing records

DDL (Data Definition Language)

DDL statements are used to alter/modify a database or table structure and schema. These statements handle the design and storage of database objects.

CREATE – create a new Table, database, schema
ALTER – alter existing table, column description
DROP – delete existing objects from database

DCL (Data Control Language)

DCL statements control the level of access that users have on database objects.

GRANT – allows users to read/write on certain database objects
REVOKE – keeps users from read/write permission on database objects

TCL (Transaction Control Language)

TCL statements allow you to control and manage transactions to maintain the integrity of data within SQL statements.

BEGIN Transaction – opens a transaction
COMMIT Transaction – commits a transaction
ROLLBACK Transaction – ROLLBACK a transaction in case of any error

 

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